Economic Order Quantity: Definition and Formula


It is often the case where customer demand, either exceeds or plummets below the estimation and this is true for almost any business out there. This is why despite the best efforts from top companies, they still either overspend on total cost or fail to meet annual demand. With sufficient inventory levels, you can really make an impact on the inventory management process. The supply chain is notorious for getting cluttered quickly which is why it is best if a business can keep its inventory limited and organized. Economic Order QuantityorEOQrefers to the optimum amount of inventory one should order.

What is economic order quantity formula examples?

Example of Economic Order Quantity

The shop sells 1,000 shirts each year. It costs the company $5 per year to hold a single shirt in inventory, and the fixed cost to place an order is $2. The EOQ formula is the square root of (2 x 1,000 shirts x $2 order cost) / ($5 holding cost), or 28.3 with rounding.

There are, however, much more accuEconomic Order Quantity Eoq Definition & Formula formulas for calculating safety stock. The quicker your inventory depletion and replenishment cycles, the better your cash flow. But a high inventory turnover rate also allows you to be more flexible in the face of changes in demand or when new product iterations are rapidly released.

Application of the EOQ Formula

Calculating EOQ is a smart way to better quantify how much you need based on important cost variables. The XYZ Equipment Company estimates its carrying cost at 15% and its ordering cost at $9 per order. The estimated annual requirement is 48,000 units at a price of $4 per unit. Average carrying cost is taken as 15% to 25% of the value of average working cost, which usually amounts to 50% of the order quantity. This is particularly so when the demand at the customer is itself uncertain.


Unexpected surges or drops in demand – unexpected upward changes in demand exhaust stocks faster than planned. The EOQ level needs to be adjusted accordingly to accommodate such sales irregularities. As mentioned before, applying the Economic Order Quantity formula is simple.

Assumption of Constant Ordering and Holding Costs

The demand is lower, but the purchase price is higher, which leads to a higher holding cost . In other words, the economic order quantity is the amount of inventory to be ordered at one time for purposes of minimizing annual inventory cost. Conversely, when the holding cost is high, the EOQ quantity reduces. After observing such outcomes, you must analyse each variable’s underlying data to isolate suspicious or unusual demand or cost drivers.

Economic order quantity is an inventory management method used to determine the optimal quantity of goods to buy at a time to minimize costs and maintain balanced inventory levels. The EOQ model is typically used in make-to-stock environments where a product’s annual demand as well as its ordering and storage costs are constant. Simply put, if you know how much of a product will be sold at any given time, you can calculate when and how much you should order to avoid inventory shortages and overstocking.

The Pros and Cons of Economic Order Quantity

It is designed to determine the optimal quantity of inventory to order so that total inventory costs are minimized. EOQ considers both the cost of ordering and the cost of carrying inventory. The benefit for an organization to spend time calculating EOQ is to minimize its inventory costs and, in turn, make strides toward being as efficient as possible. This basic formula can save businesses thousands of dollars as it prevents you from overspending on inventory costs. The economic order quantity formula takes into account multiple factors to bring down total costs and gives you insights into managing inventory.

Safety stock is frequently utilized during peak shopping times, such as the holidays, and during significant promotions or flash sales. Knowing your EOQ will help you accurately set the optimized amount of safety stock you need. But to conduct precise calculations, the necessary data must be available. The EOQ model assumes a constant need for a certain product and that you can supply it immediately. Finding the economic order quantity for any product you buy will impact revenue.

To the procurement cost of multi-item orders, the total cost is divided by the number of items ordered during a given period of time. Economic order quantity helps your business determine the ideal order size for any product. For example, if you run a retail, restaurant, wholesale or manufacturing business, EOQ can help you optimize order sizes to maximize profits. If companies accidentally schedule their order point for a later date, it can prevent sales. Out-of-stock goods and items on backorder aren’t good for customer service, and can deter customers from your store.

What is the meaning of economic order quantity?

Economic order quantity (EOQ) is a term for the ideal quantity a company should purchase to minimize its inventory costs, like shortage or carrying costs.

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